2014年01月10日

本のデザイン

今までロゴやポップ、ポスターやDM等、様々なデザインをやってきたけど、製本される本のトータルデザインは始めてのお仕事。

本やムックや雑誌にはInDesignが断然便利だと思うので、今回始めてInDesignを使って本のデザインをすることに。

ソフトの知識と製本等の知識、そして本デザインの知識。
全てが必要だったので、結構リサーチして勉強して構想を練った上で、本に最適と思われるデザインも考えて。
色々とはじめて尽くしだったのと、知識面や実践面で学んだ事も多かったので、ここに記録しておくことにしました。

今回は実際に出版される本だけど、これから電子書籍等も一般化し、もっと気軽に本が作れる時代になって行くので、需要もあるかなと。
私も色んな本やブログやまとめ等を参考にさせて貰ったので。
私の経験も誰かの役に立つと嬉しいです。

2014.1.10
posted by oh3uz at 15:18| Comment(0) | はじめに | 更新情報をチェックする

製本の基本ルール

今回は英語の本なので、頑張って英語で検索し、基本的なルールを確認。

ざっと基本的なこと、知りたい点を箇条書きにすると...

・余白
・行数/行間隔
・フォント
・文字サイズ
・その他のルールがあれば


中でもフォントが、デザイン面でも要かなと。

以下が簡単なリサーチ結果。

Basic Book Design/Font

○ Keep Out Of Trouble Rules
Use 11-point Palatino for text.
Use 14-point Helvetica for chapter titles and 12-point Helvetica for section headings.
Never use monospaced (a.k.a. “typewriter”) fonts, e.g., Courier, except when mocking up documents, i.e., reports, that actually use such a font.
Use unusual fonts only for short items, e.g., the title and author's name on the cover, or for chapter titles.
Don't use too many fonts. Three should be enough for almost any book.
Check books you like the look of, and see which fonts they use. Half an hour in a bookstore looking at fonts can be very useful and enlightening.
Don't forget that it can only take up less than a quarter of a page

なるほど。

こちらの説だと、
フォントとフォントサイズの踏外さない基本ルールは以下の通り。

・チャプター毎のタイトル
 → Helvetica :文字サイズ 14-point
・セクション毎のタイトルは
 → Helvetica :文字サイズ 12-point
・文章は
 → Palatino :文字サイズ 11-point



○ Advanced Rules about...
serif
sans-serif
proportional
monospaced
x-height
points
picas
subheads
large-print book

○ Serif vs. Sans-Serif
Fonts are, in general, divided into serif and sans-serif designs. Serif fonts have little curlicues on the ends of the letters. Sans-serif fonts don't. E.g.,
Times Roman is a serif font.
Helvetica is a sans-serif font.
People don't read words one letter at a time. They recognize entire words at once. Words are, in general, easier to recognize in a serif font, for three reasons:
• The curlicues give the letters a more distinctive shape.
• The lower-case letters are relatively smaller (and the upper-case letters relatively larger). This is called x-height.
• Readers are used to reading serif fonts. What you read most often is easiest for you to read.
Smaller x-height makes serif fonts use less horizontal space. I.e., your book will be shorter if you use a serif font. E.g., the following two sentences are the same font size:
TimesAndHelvetica.png
In 1931, the London Times hired typographers to design a highly readable, compact font. Times Roman is now the most widely used font. It's chicken-and-egg: Times Roman is easy to read, so it's widely used; and it's widely used, so it's easy to read.

また、一般的な文章としてはserifフォントの方流通していて、「人は文章を文字毎に読むのではなく単語で認識する」ので、その形状や流通を加味すると serif フォントで文章を書いた方が読み易い。
ということらしい。

○ Chapter And Section Titles
Use a different font for chapter titles. Helvetica is a good choice. It's the most popular sans-serif font. It's the most distinctive font from Times Roman that is still relatively easy to read. It also looks good in bold.
The Chicago Manual of Style (18.28-29) advocates using the same font for text and for section and subsection headings (called subheads). The Chicagoans recommend using ALL CAPS, italics, SMALL CAPS, etc., to differentiate the levels of headings.
Don't use small caps in a heading unless you buy a small caps font. The Small Caps feature that word processors offer you (scaling down capitals) isn't really small caps. More about this later. If you use a small caps font, make sure the heading font isn't smaller than the text font. That would confuse readers.
ALL CAPS are harder to read. This is OK for short chapter titles, but not for long subheads.
Instead, consider using the chapter title font (e.g., Helvetica) for the A-level subheads, and then switching to the text font (e.g., Times Roman) for the B-level subheads. E.g., this book has chapter titles in 14-point Helvetica Neue bold ALL CAPS, section heads in 12-point Helvetica Neue bold Title Case, and subheads in 12-point Times New Roman italic Title Case.
Subheads should never be the last item on a page. In Microsoft Word, use Format…Paragraph…Line and Page Breaks…Keep with next to prevent this.

これによると、
・タイトルと文章は違うフォント(sans-serif)を使う方が一般的でHelveticaが主流。
(タイトルと文章のフォントを同じにした出版の例もあるようなのでデザイン次第)
当たり前のような話しだけど、
・タイトルの文字は文章やセクションタイトルよりも大きく。
・全大文字は、短いタイトル以外は読みにくいので避けた方が良さそう。

これは後程記述するが、InDesignを使う上でも、
以下の様に、それぞれの階層を最初に決めておく事が大事。
- chapter titles :14-point Helvetica Neue bold ALL CAPS
|_section heads :12-point Helvetica Neue bold Title Case
|_subheads :12-point Times New Roman italic Title Case


リサーチ元:その他の詳細はこちらのリンクよりご覧下さい。
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Basic_Book_Design/Font


と言っても、経験値がない中で最初にフォントを決めるのって難しい。
特に次のリサーチでもわかるように、文字自体は一見似ていてもページにレイアウトしてみると、違いが明確に現れるもの。→詳細を次にまとめてみます。

なので、後で少しだけ修正するのが面倒かもしれないが、恐れずに
1)最初の1~3チャプター位は、文字を「流し込ん」で少しレイアウトし、
2)PDF保存してみて比較→検討してみる

方が意外と先に進めて、時間面でも精神面でも楽かもしれない。と思いました。

またこの方法は後程。
posted by oh3uz at 15:59| Comment(0) | リサーチ | 更新情報をチェックする

フォントについて

基本的なルールやベーシックがわかったところで、
では実際どんなフォントがあって、どんなフォントが好ましいのか。

色々リサーチしてみた結果。

こちらが自分的にとても参考に。
THE BOOK DESIGNER の Picking Fonts for Your Self-Published Book のコラムより。
※詳細は上記リンクをご参照ください。

デフォルトの問題点と...

○ The Problem with Defaults

Computer engineers can be forgiven for putting these fonts in a premium position. After all, they wanted to make sure even a user who had no knowledge of or interest in fonts would still get a good, or at least an acceptable, result.

But there are problems with that approach, too. Times New Roman, for instance, is a font originally designed under the supervision of Stanley Morrison in 1931 for use in the Times of London newspaper.

Its efficient set width and other internal properties of the design were intended to be readable in the narrow columns of a newspaper, not in the more ample environment of a book.

Arial is a copy of Helvetica, probably the most popular font in the recent history of typography (and the only typeface I know of to have an entire feature film made about it) is wonderful for many uses. But it’s not really intended for readers in the United States, who are unused to seeing entire books set in sans serif fonts.

それを解決してくれるフォントについてのヒント。

○ Better Solutions for Your Font Needs

Luckily, as computers have become more powerful and users more sophisticated about typography (the art of designing with type) there has also been an explosion of new fonts from lots of new designers.

So it might surprise you to find out that by far the best fonts for use in books are the oldest.

Or, if not the oldest, the fonts based on the oldest designs for fonts, those that originated in the very beginning of book printing in the late 15th century.

In fact, probably the best fonts for book design are from a family of type designs we call “oldstyle” so that will give you some idea what I’m talking about.


その「Oldstyle Fonts」についての説明。

○ Recognizing Oldstyle Fonts

These fonts were based on the writing of calligraphers, the scribes who, before the invention of printing, were responsible for making copies of books by writing them out.

Oldstyle fonts have characteristics that show that origin, and which make them ideal for book composition. (For a more complete discussion, check this link to oldstyle fonts.)

There are three identifying characteristics to oldstyle fonts:

1. Tilted axis–If you look closely at a round letter like an “O” or “C” you’ll notice there are thicker strokes and thinner ones. In oldstyle fonts, the axis of these letters is tilted, so that if you draw a line through the thinnest parts, it will be slightly off-center. This imitates the way the scribes would naturally write with a square-tipped pen.
2. Moderate stroke variation–Look again and you’ll see that the thin and thick strokes, although noticeably different, do not vary all that much. In other words, the thick strokes are thick, but not hugely so. This is also due to the way a square-tipped pen creates a varying stroke as you create each character.
3. Rounded or bracketed serifs–Serifs are the little bits of strokes like the “legs” on an “i” or the ending strokes on letters that look strictly decorative. These serifs are also due to the scribes, and the way their pens would leave a tiny flourish when they finished a stroke. Serifs help letters stick together as words, and that helps readability quite a bit.

更に、オススメまで。

○ Fonts That Work in Books

Okay, so now you know how to recognize oldstyle fonts, how is that going to help you? Let’s take a look at some of my favorite fonts for interior book design, and you’ll see.

Garamond – There are many versions of typefaces known as Garamond, and this is one of the most popular families of fonts for use in books. A classic oldstyle font, Garamond is named for Claude Garamond, a publisher in 16th century France, and has given rise to many other similar typefaces like the also useful Sabon.
Caslon – This font originated with William Cason, one of England’s first printers and has been popular ever since. Caslon is one of the most widely-used typefaces for text and works very well in books.
Minion – A modern invention, Minion was designed by Robert Slimbach for Adobe Systems and has gone on to become one of the favorite fonts for book designers due to its regular color, interesting letterforms and the variety of weights and styles available.
Janson Text – Another Adobe font, Janson is based on a typeface created in the Netherlands in the 17th century, and our recent version was created by famed type designer Hermann Zapf in the 1950s.
Palatino – For a long time Palatino was the most popular oldstyle font of all, because it was included in the base set of fonts shipped with every new Macintosh, the original desktop publishing platform. Although it’s a beautiful font with some idiosyncrasies that designer Hermann Zapf included, I no longer use Palatino for books, exactly because it has been so over-exposed. But you might love it, so give it a try.


早速、上記5フォントを探して、無料でダウンロードできるものをゲットし、比較してみました。。

Garamond
Gourmand.png
Caslon
Caslon.png
Minion
Minion.png
Palatino
Palatino.png

以下にも記載がある通り、
一見似ているこれらのフォントですが、ページ毎に比較してみると全く違ったものになる
とのこと。

○ Putting it Together

Although these fonts have a lot in common, they will create books that look subtly different.

The best way to find out how your book will look and feel is to set some sample pages in each one. While you might have trouble telling the difference between a Caslon “e” and a Minion “e”, when you see a whole page with thousands of characters on it, they will look noticeably different.

I don’t think any one of these oldstyle fonts is more appropriate than the others for specific types of books. Much more depends on your skill as a designer, and the tools you’re using to create your book design.

Typesetting with a word processor is never going to give you the smooth color, sophisticated hyphenation, and fine control over your type that you can get with a professional-level program.

But by picking the right typeface at the beginning, you’ll ensure that your book can be readable and conform to long-standing book publishing practices.

And that’s no small thing.

ということで、ちょっと飛んで〜先を行きますが、(InDesignのリサーチ後に)
今度はInDesignにテキストを配置し、そのフォントを変更して比較してみました。
※クリックで大きくしてみれます

Garamond
比較_Garamond.png
Minion
比較_Minion.png
Palatino
比較_Palatino.png


インデザインに入っているフォントと入っていないものがあるので、インデザインに上記ダウンロードしたフォントを追加しましたが、、
以下リンク先にも記載がある通り、Open Fontを使用する方が汎用性があって良さそう。

・入れ方はコチラInDesign / フォントの使用をご一読頂くことをオススメします。
が、簡単に言うと「アプリケーションフォルダに入っている「font」フォルダに、ダウンロードしたフォントをフォルダごとコピペで入れるだけ」です。※mac OS10使用)

☆先に結論を言うと:最終的には全候補の中からInDesignに入っているオープンフォントにあるものを中心に選択し使用しました。


こちらのTHE BOOK DESIGNERのサイトには、他にも「表紙に最適なフォント」等、簡潔にまとめられた、参考になるような記事が沢山ありました。
視野が広がりオススメです。

posted by oh3uz at 17:08| Comment(0) | リサーチ | 更新情報をチェックする
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